How to get rid of dandruff
Dandruff is the scaling of the surface layer of the scalp from the shedding of keratinocytes. This condition is very common. There are many causes of dandruff, including too dry or greasy skin, inflammation of the skin (such as dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis), fungal infections, and using too much or too little hair products such as shampoo, styling spray and hairspray. Dandruff is not contagious, rarely has complications, and is not a symptom of any serious illness, but can be embarrassing on many occasions. Sometimes the cause of dandruff is difficult to diagnose and cure, but with special shampoos and certain home remedies, it is much easier to control them.
Use zinc pyrithione shampoo. Zinc pyrithione has antibacterial and antifungal properties that help reduce bacterial or fungal infections of the scalp that can cause dandruff from seborrheic dermatitis. Malassezia furfur is thought to be one of the causes of high dandruff in some people. It may be a good idea to buy zinc pyrithione shampoo at your local store or pharmacy instead of your usual shampoo.
Seborrheic dermatitis is the most common cause of dandruff, and it usually occurs on the scalp, ears, face, and upper body (middle part of the forehead and back).
Seborrheic dermatitis causes itchy, red, scaly patches of skin that shed and then form dandruff.
Commonly available zinc pyrithione shampoos on the market are Heflex, Selsun Salon, Jason 2-in-1 anti-dandruff shampoo, and Neutrogena daily dandruff control shampoo.
Use a shampoo that contains coal tar. Coal tar slows the rate of scalp cell recession and essentially prevents skin cells from drying out and forming scaly patches. Reducing plaque formation is equivalent to reducing dandruff. The main disadvantage of coal tar shampoo is that it smells bad and can be very painful if you accidentally get it in your eyes.
Coal tar is actually a by-product of the coal production process. It is believed to be effective in preventing dandruff caused by seborrheic dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis.
Eczema is characterized by an itchy, red rash on the skin, while psoriasis is characterized by raised patches on the body covered with silvery scales.
Common coal tar shampoos on the market include Neutrogena T/Gel, Denorex Therapeutic Protection Shampoo, and Scytera.
Consider using a selenium sulfide shampoo. Selenium sulfide also slows the rate of scalp cell death or “renewal,” which in turn reduces scaly plaque and dandruff production. Unlike coal tar, selenium sulfide also has antifungal properties against Malassezia furfur. Thus, selenium sulfide shampoo is more versatile and can treat a broader range of causes. However, its main drawback is that it can cause discoloration of blonde, gray, or chemically dyed hair.
Use these shampoos exactly as directed, do not leave them on the scalp for too long, and rinse thoroughly with water to reduce the likelihood of hair discoloration.
Shampoos that contain selenium sulfide include Selsun Blue, Dandrex, and Heflex clinical grade shampoos.
Use shampoos that contain salicylic acid. Salicylic acid, the main active ingredient in aspirin, softens dead skin, exfoliates the scalp and reduces inflammation, which in turn reduces scaly patches and eliminates dandruff. Its main drawback is that overuse can lead to a dry scalp, which in turn triggers more dandruff and is counterproductive.
Use a scalp conditioning conditioner after washing your hair to make your scalp less dry.
Common salicylic acid shampoos on the market include Ionil T and Neutrogena T/Sal.
Some salicylic acid shampoos also contain sulfur, such as Sebex and Sebulex. these brands have a stronger smell and may leave hair with an unpleasant odor.
If all else fails, try using a shampoo that contains ketoconazole. Ketoconazole is a strong broad-spectrum antifungal agent that is effective against most fungi and yeasts. It is usually only recommended when none of the above methods work. It is available as an over-the-counter and prescription product and is somewhat more expensive than other anti-dandruff shampoos.
Ketoconazole products, unlike most other anti-dandruff shampoos, can only be used a maximum of 2 times per week.
Commonly available ketoconazole shampoos on the market are King of Wellness, Zellar, Nizoral, Extina, and Xolegel.
Talk to your doctor about prescription-grade shampoos and creams. Over-the-counter anti-dandruff shampoos are usually effective, although if the condition is severe, prescription-grade shampoos may be necessary. Their ingredients are no different from the products mentioned above, except that they are higher in content and therefore more potent. However, there is no scientific evidence to show that prescription-grade anti-dandruff shampoos are more effective than over-the-counter products.
Ketoconazole is the compound most commonly used in prescription-grade shampoos.
Your doctor will examine your scalp to confirm the true cause of dandruff. You may be referred to a dermatologist for an exact diagnosis.
If the dandruff is the result of some kind of inflammation, such as psoriasis or eczema, your doctor will recommend and prescribe a lotion or cream containing corticosteroids. The most common steroid used to treat dandruff is betamethasone, which can be found in brands such as Bettamousse and Betnovate. The strength of the product varies depending on the body part used, for example the scalp can tolerate steroids at a somewhat higher strength than the skin of the neck or face, so make sure you get the right product.
Wash your hair with tea tree oil. Tea tree oil, an essential oil extracted from the Australian tea tree, has been used for centuries as an antiseptic, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent. If dandruff is caused by an infection, a shampoo or other product containing tea tree oil may help. Scrub the scalp with it, but be careful not to get it in your eyes. Allow the scalp to absorb the tea tree oil and rinse off only after a few minutes.
Some people may be allergic to tea tree oil, test it by applying a small amount to the back of your hand first. As long as your skin does not have any adverse reaction, you can proceed to use it on your scalp.
If tea tree oil is too strong for you, try black tea or green tea. They are both astringents and contain antioxidants. Boil the dried tea leaves in water, strain the tea and use it to rinse your scalp when it cools.
Consider treating your hair with other oils. If dandruff is the result of a scalp that is too dry, you can use coconut oil, olive oil or baby oil to alleviate the problem. Gently massage your scalp with the oil in the shower, then wait 5 to 10 minutes for your scalp to absorb the oil. Afterwards, rinse your hair with water and wash off the oil with a little shampoo. The oil has a moisturizing and hydrating effect and also makes the hair softer. Coconut oil is also a good anti-microbial agent that kills bacteria and fungus.
Consider massaging your scalp with the oil before going to bed and washing your hair only when you wake up the next day. Wrap your hair in a shower cap to avoid staining your pillow.
If you suspect that dandruff is caused by a scalp that is too oily, then do not condition your hair with oil.
Condition your hair with natural yogurt. Plain yogurt with no added sugar is effective for moisturizing skin all over the body, consider using it for itchy and/or inflamed scalps. The active bacteria in yogurt and its own alkalinity help improve scalp health and soothe skin irritation. It can also make hair softer and fuller. Apply yogurt to the scalp after washing your hair. rinse off after 10 to 15 minutes, then wash your hair with a small amount of shampoo.
Do not use yogurt with added sugar, flavorings and fruits. Buy a thicker and natural whey-free yogurt, also known as Greek yogurt.
True whey-free yogurt contains beneficial strains of bacteria known as probiotics. Applying these probiotics to your skin may help reduce redness, itching and stinging.
Get more sunlight. Sunlight is helpful in removing dandruff because it stimulates the skin to produce vitamin D. UV rays also kill microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. However, too much sunlight can damage the skin and may make them more likely to flake off in flakes, so don’t sunbathe for too long.
Spend more time outdoors each day and don’t cover your head with anything.
Don’t sunbathe for too long. Excessive UV exposure can damage the skin, including the scalp, and increase the risk of skin cancer.
When outdoors, wear sunscreen on both your face and body to reduce the harmful effects of UV rays on your skin.
Change your diet. Dry scalp can be caused by a deficiency in certain dietary nutrients, such as B vitamins, zinc, and healthy fatty acids. Dietary deficiencies are becoming more common in developing countries and can cause a variety of skin problems and other diseases.
Foods high in zinc include oysters, shellfish, red meat, poultry meat, eggs, pork, dairy products, and most edible seeds.
Foods rich in B vitamins include clams, oysters, tamari, liver, fish, beef, cheese and eggs.
Healthy fatty acids can be obtained from fish oil, flaxseed and many types of nuts.
In addition to consuming vitamins and minerals, it is important to drink plenty of water. Dry, flaky skin is a common sign of dehydration. Plan to drink about 2,000 ml of purified water daily.
Most anti-dandruff shampoos can be used daily or every other day. However, more potent products may have different directions, so be sure to check the label.
Use the product according to the time indicated on the label. Most manufacturers recommend waiting at least five minutes before rinsing, although some products do not need to be left on the hair for too long, such as selenium sulfide shampoos.
After the anti-dandruff shampoo has worked, reduce the frequency of use to just two or three times a week until you are completely dandruff-free. Then stop using the product and see if the dandruff comes back.
Use styling products such as hairspray, hair mousse and styling sprays sparingly. They can build up on the surface of the scalp and make it dry or oily.
Other possible causes of dandruff include chronic stress, poor hygiene and weather conditions (too hot and humid or cold and dry).